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Table 1 Physiological factors impacting on intra abdominal pressure (IAH)

From: Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

Related to diminished abdominal wall compliance • High BMI
• Pregnancy
• Mechanical ventilation
• The use of PEEP or when auto PEEP is present
• Basal pneumonia
• Pneumoperitoneum
• Abdominal surgery particularly with tight abdominal closures
• Pneumatic anti shock garments
• Prone positioning
• Abdominal wall bleeding or abdominal hematoma
• Burns with abdominal eschars
Related to increased intra-abdominal contents • Gastro paresis
• Gastric distension
• Ileus
• Volvulus
• Bowel pseudo obstruction
• Abdominal hematoma
• Intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal hematoma
• Damage control laparotomy
• Liver dysfunction with ascites
• Abdominal infection (peritonitis, pancreatitis)
• Hemoperitoneum
• Pneumoperitoneum
• Major trauma
• Excessive inflation during laparoscopy
• Peritoneal dialysis
Related to capillary leak and fluid resuscitation • Acidosis (pH below 7.2)
• Hypothermia (core temp below 33°
• Coagulopathy
• Multiple transfusions/trauma (>10 units in 24 hours)
• Sepsis, severe sepsis or bacteraemia
• Septic shock
• Massive fluid resuscitation (>5 L colloid or > L crystalloid in 24 hours in the presence of capillary leak and a positive fluid balance)
• Major burns