Mean arterial blood pressure during hemorrhage and resuscitation. Lactated Ringer’s infusion began at 15 minutes in groups 2 (no vagus nerve stimulation) and 3. Group 3 animals also underwent vagus nerve stimulation starting at the 15th minute. Data represent mean ± SEM (8 animals per group). *
p < 0.05 vs. baseline and sham; one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). VNS = Vagus nerve stimulation, G = group.