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Table 1 Overview of all included parameters of patients after major trauma 2000–2005 comparing both groups, ISS ≥ 50 and ISS < 50

From: Outcome after severe multiple trauma: a retrospective analysis

ISS ≥ 50 vs. ISS < 50 ISS < 50    ISS ≥ 50    Chi-squared test or t-test
1435 patients number mean % number mean % significance (p)
Total 1347   93.9% 88   6.1%  
Male 1004   74.5% 68   77.3% 0.83
Female 343   25.5% 20   22.7% 0.66
ISS        
< 20 556   41.3%     
21–40 688   51.1%     
41–49 103   7.6%     
Mechanism of trauma        
Car/truck 365   27.1% 31   35.2% 0.23
Motor cycle 212   15.7% 24   27.3% 0.023
Bicycle 96   7.1% 4   4.5% 0.39
Pedestrian 44   3.3% 7   8.0% 0.029
Fall > 3 m 198   14.7% 14   15.9% 0.79
Fall < 3 m 195   14.5% 1   1.1% 0.0012
Other 237   17.6% 7   8.0%  
Pattern of injury        
Head/brain 689   51.2% 48   54.5% 0.73
Face 252   18.7% 19   21.6% 0.58
Chest 450   33.4% 49   55.7% 0.0057
Abdomen 211   15.7% 30   34.1% 0.00039
Spinal cord 360   26.7% 30   34.1% 0.27
Pelvis 179   13.3% 27   30.7% 0.00025
Upper limb 311   23.1% 25   28.4% 0.38
Lower limb 315   23.4% 27   30.7% 0.23
Soft tissues 266   19.7% 25   28.4% 0.12
Primarily unconscious patients (GCS <= 8) 245   18.2% 41   46.6% 0.0000015
Intubation rate 648   48.1% 66   75.0% 0.0084
Reanimation rate 18   1.3% 8   9.1% 0.0000005
Secondarily transferred patients 548   40.7% 36   40.9% 0.98
Preclinical shock (BP systolic < 90 mmHg) 73   5.4 % 16   18.2% 0,000017
Duration until organ failure   days    days   
Lung 209 9.5 15.5% 27 9.1 30.7% 0.0028
Coagulation/Blood 44 3.5 3.3% 11 1.7 12.5% 0.000051
Liver 30 11.6 2.2% 2 2 2.3% 0.98
Circulation 178 8.1 13.2% 31 8.1 35.2% 0.0000058
Central nervous system 156 14.9 11.6% 27 20 30.7% 0.000019
Kidney 66 8.9 4.9% 4 5 4.5% 0.89
SIRS 51 8.7 3.8% 11 11.5 12.5% 0.00032
Duration of intubation 944 13.4   77 20.3   0.0000094
Lethality/Dead 179   13.3% 32   36.4% 0.0000024
Early lethality (< 24 h after hospital admission) 46   3.4% 12   13.6% 0.000014
Time in hospital   49.1    73.4   0.0002158
Time on intensive care unit   14.4    25.9   0.0000057
Involved body regions   2.3    3.8   3.09444E-29
Operations per patient   3.6    5.7   6.25E-08
Aim of discharge        
Home 512   38.0% 23   26.1% 0.12
Rehabilitation hospital 449   33.3% 20   22.7% 0.13
Other hospital 184   13.7% 11   12.5% 0.79
Other 7   0.5% 0   0%  
Dead 179   13.3% 32   36.4%  
Unknown 16   1.2% 2   2.3%  
Status after discharge due to GOS        
Well recovered 509   37.8% 20   22.7% 0.036
Moderately affected 92   6.8% 3   3.4% 0.21
Heavily affected 125   9.3% 13   14.8% 0.07
Unconscious 29   2.2% 2   2.3% 0.98
Dead 106   7.9% 20   22.7% 0.00013
Unknown 53   3.9% 4   4.5%