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Table 4 Comparison of associated injuries between the subsets of patients of the PFx group and the control group, who had an ISS of less than 75 and were classified as potentially preventable deaths. Associated severe injuries were significantly more common in the PFx group than in the control group.

From: Patients with pelvic fractures due to falls: A paradigm that contributed to autopsy-based audit of trauma in Greece

Injuries: Anatomic Region,
(AIS-90 codes)
PFx group Control group After adjustment for age, gender, intention, and height of fall p-value
  n % n % OR† 95% CI  
Total number of patients analysed 163 100 695 100    
Head, (1.*.**.**.*), (AIS1-5) 112 68.7 575 82.7 0.42 0.28-0.63 < 0.001
Brain, (1.4.**.**.*), (AIS3-5) 92 56.4 535 77.0 0.33 0.23-0.49 < 0.001
Skull, (1.5.**.**.*), (AIS2-4) 47 28.8 393 56.6 0.27 0.18-0.40 < 0.001
Thorax, (4.*.**.**.*), (AIS1-5) 145 89.0 278 40.0 10.54 6.25-17.79 < 0.001
Thoracic wall, (4.5.**.**.*), (AIS2-5) 137 84.1 232 33.4 9.36 5.94-14.76 < 0.001
Thoracic viscera, (4.4.**.**.*), (AIS2-5) 99 60.7 129 18.6 5.90 4.01-8.66 < 0.001
Thoracic vessels (4.2.**.**.*), (AIS2-5) 28 17.2 36 5.2 3.47 2.00-6.02 < 0.001
Abdominal, (5.*.**.**.*), (AIS1-5) 117 71.8 145 20.9 8.36 5.54-12.59 < 0.001
Abdominal/pelvic viscera, (5.4.**.**.*), (AIS1-5) 112 68.7 123 17.7 9.07 6.03-13.66 < 0.001
Liver, (5.4.18.**.*), (AIS2-5) 76 46.6 78 11.2 5.83 3.86-8.79 < 0.001
Spleen, (5.4.42.**.*), (AIS2-5) 57 35.0 70 10.1 4.21 2.74-6.47 < 0.001
Gastrointestinal tract, (5.4.44.**.*, 5.4.10.**.*, 5.4.14.**.*, 5.4.08.**.*, 5.4.36.**.*), (AIS2-5) 3 1.8 8 1.2 1.16 0.29-4.56 0.834
Abdominal vessels, (5.2.**.**.*), (AIS2-5) 0 0.0 1 0.1 Cannot be estimated
Diaphragm, (4.4.06.**.*), (AIS2-3) 5 3.1 6 0.9 2.57 0.75-8.83 0.133
Kidney, (5.4.16.**.*), (AIS2-5) 38 23.3 31 4.5 5.17 3.04-8.82 < 0.001
Bladder, (5.4.06.**.*), (AIS2-4) 0 0.0 1 0.1 Cannot be estimated
Genitourinary tract, (5.4.48.**.*, 5.4.06.**.*, 5.4.50.**.*, 5.4.52.**.*, 5.4.34.**.*, 5.4.56.**.*, 5.4.54.**.*,
5.4.30.**.*, 5.4.46.**.*), (AIS1-5)
5 3.1 2 0.3 11.64 2.08-65.0 0.005
Perineum, (5.4.32.**.*), (AIS1-3) 2 1.2 1 0.1 7.77 0.60-100.0 0.116
Spine, (6.**.**.*.*), (AIS2-5) 45 27.6 98 14.1 2.40 1.57-3.65 < 0.001
Cervical spine, (6.3.02.**.*, 6.4.02.**.*, 6.5.02.**.*), (AIS2-5) 30 18.4 77 11.1 2.11 1.30-3.43 0.003
Thoracic spine, (6.3.04.**.*, 6.4.04.**.*, 6.5.04.**.*), (AIS2-5) 18 11.0 25 3.6 2.90 1.50-5.62 0.002
Lumbar spine, (6.3.06.**.*, 6.4.06.**.*, 6.5.06.**.*), (AIS2-5) 3 1.8 5 0.7 2.79 0.62-12.55 0.182
Upper extremities, (7.*.**.**.*), (AIS1-3) 102 62.6 279 40.1 2.07 1.44-2.99 < 0.001
Upper limb skeletal trauma, (7.5.**.**.*), (AIS1-3) 59 36.2 105 15.1 2.77 1.87-4.11 < 0.001
Humerus, (7.5.26.**.*), (AIS2-3) 29 17.8 37 5.3 3.37 1.96-5.81 < 0.001
Forearm, (7.5.28.**.*, 7.5.32.**.*), (AIS2-3) 29 17.8 23 3.3 5.79 3.17-10.57 < 0.001
Lower extremities, (8.*.**.**.*), (AIS1-5) 114 69.9 271 39.0 3.15 2.16-4.60 < 0.001
Lower limb skeletal trauma, (8.5.**.**.* besides pelvis: 8.5.26.**.*, 8.5.28.**.*, 8.5.30.**.*), (AIS1-3) 162 99.4 120 17.3 762.6 105.3-5525 < 0.001
Femur, (8.5.18.**.*), (AIS2-3) 45 27.6 74 10.7 3.20 2.06-4.97 < 0.001
Tibia, (8.5.34.**.*, 8.5.16.**.*), (AIS1-3) 38 23.3 38 5.5 4.44 2.68-7.36 < 0.001
Acetabulum-hip, (8.5.06.**.*, 8.5.26.00.2), (AIS1-2) 4 2.5 3 0.4 5.63 1.15-27.65 0.033
Foot fracture, (8.5.02.**.*, 8.5.04.**.*, 8.5.10.**.*, 8.5.12.**.*, 8.5.14.**.*, 8.5.20.**.*, 8.5.22.**.*, 8.5.32.**.*, 8.5.36.**.*), (AIS1-2) 8 4.9 8 1.2 3.48 1.24-9.79 0.018
Calcaneus fracture, (8.5.14.00.2), (AIS2) 3 1.8 1 0.1 11.80 1.14-121.9 0.038
  1. *The asterisks that follow the AIS-90 codes indicate that the complete range of injuries was included. Injuries are ranked on a scale of 1 to 6, with 1 being minor, 2 moderate, 3 serious, 4 severe, 5 critical, and 6 not compatible with life injury.
  2. §PFx group versus control group.
  3. AIS-90, Abbreviated Injury Scale - 1990 revision; OR, odds ratio; PFx, pelvic fractures.