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Table 4 Risk for severe TBI (Marshal ≥3) associated with substance use at time of injury and pre-injury substance abuse (n = 88).

From: Effects of acute substance use and pre-injury substance abuse on traumatic brain injury severity in adults admitted to a trauma centre

  Number of cases
n (%)
Less severe TBI
n (%)
More severe TBI
n (%)
OR (95% CI)
Unadjusted
OR (95% CI)
Adjusted for age and gender
OR (95% CI)
Adjusted for age, gender, education, cause of injury, subst. use/CAGE
Substance use       
   No 43 (49) 20 (42) 23 (58) 1* 1* 1*
   Yes 45 (51) 28 (58) 17 (42) 0.52 (0.23-1.24) 0.60 (0.24-1.53) 0.39 (0.11-1.35)
     p = 0.14 p = 0.28 p = 0.14
CAGE       
   < 2 65 (74) 37 (77) 28 (70) 1* 1* 1*
   ≥ 2 23 (26) 11 (23) 12 (30) 1.44 (0.56-3.74) 1.66 (0.60-4.61) 4.05 (1.05-15.64)
     p = 0.45 p = 0.32 p = 0.04
  1. The data are presented as OR (odds ratio). *Reference category. OR greater than 1 increases probability of severe TBI. OR less than 1 decreases the probability of severe TBI.