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Table 3 Injury characteristics and therapeutic variables in substance abuse versus no substance abuse groups.

From: Effects of acute substance use and pre-injury substance abuse on traumatic brain injury severity in adults admitted to a trauma centre

Variables Substance abuse (CAGE ≥2)
n = 23
No substance abuse (CAGE <2)
n = 65
Glasgow coma scale (GCS)   
   Mean ± SD 7.7 ± 3.2 7.7 ± 3.1
Injury severity sore (ISS)   
   Mean ± SD 30.1 ± 12.9 28.3 ± 13.0
Intracranial surgery   
   Rate 52% 35%
Intracranial pressure (ICP)   
   Measurement rate 57% 47%
Artificial ventilation   
   Rate 81% 68%
Tracheostomy   
   Rate 57% 39%
Artificial ventilation days   
   Median (IQR) 12 (19) 2 (15)
Medical complications >1   
   Rate 30% 15%
ICU length of stay   
   Median (IQR) 9 (15) 4.5 (12)
Length of acute hospital stay   
   Median (IQR) 9 (12) 7.5 (10)
Glasgow outcome scale (GOS)   
   Level ≥4 30% 45%
  1. ICU = Intensive Care Unit; IQR = interquartile range