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Table 2 Demographic and injury characteristics in relation to Marshall groups (score <3 less severe, score ≥3 more severe TBI).

From: Effects of acute substance use and pre-injury substance abuse on traumatic brain injury severity in adults admitted to a trauma centre

Variables Less severe TBI
(n = 50) (%)
More severe TBI
(n = 61) (%)
p-value Total
(N = 111) (%)
Gender    0.08  
   Male 43 (86) 44 (72)   87 (78)
   Female 7 (14) 17 (28)   24 (22)
Age (years)    0.69  
   Mean ± SD 31.7 ± 10.7 32.6 ± 12.4   32.2 ± 11.6
Education    0.002  
   0-9 years 11 (22) 4 (6)   15 (14)
   10-12 years 14 (28) 33 (54)   47 (42)
   ≥ 13 years 25 (50) 18 (30)   43 (39)
   Missing 0 (0) 6 (10)   6 (5)
Marital status    0.54  
   Married/live with 27 (54) 35 (59)   62 (56)
   Divorced 4 (8) 7 (12)   11 (10)
   Live alone 19 (38) 17 (29)   36 (32)
   Missing 0 (0) 2 (3)   2 (2)
Employment    0.40  
   Employed 39 (78) 46 (81)   85 (77)
   Unemployed 3 (6) 6 (11)   9 (8)
   Retired/Disabled 8 (16) 5 (9)   13 (12)
   Missing 0 (0) 4 (7)   4 (2)
Cause of injury    0.04  
   Traffic accidents 23 (46) 42 (69)   65 (59)
   Falls 17 (34) 11 (18)   28 (25)
   Others 10 (20) 8 (13)   18 (16)
Substance use    0.01  
   No 20 (40) 39 (64)   59 (53)
   Yes 30 (60) 22 (36)   52 (47)
Glasgow coma scale (GCS)    0.001  
   Mean ± SD 8.9 ± 2.9 5.5 ± 2.5   7.0 ± 3.2
Injury severity score (ISS)    0.001  
   Mean ± SD 25.2 ± 14.6 35.0 ± 10.7   30.6 ± 13.5
Type of injury    0.67  
   Isolated TBI 20 (40) 22 (36)   42 (38)
   Multiple traumas (incl. TBI) 30 (60) 39 (64)   69 (62)
Intracranial surgery    0.001  
   No 39 (78) 21 (34)   60 (54)
   Yes 11 (22) 40 (66)   51 (46)
Medical complications    0.001  
   No 35 (70) 12 (20)   47 (42)
   Yes 15 (30) 49 (80)   64 (58)
ICU length of stay (days)    0.001  
   Median (IQR) 1.5 (6) 12 (14)   5 (13)
Length of acute hospital stay (days)    0.001  
   Median (IQR) 5 (6) 12 (12)   8 (11)
Glasgow outcome scale (GOS)at discharge    0.001  
   1 (dead) 0 (0) 13 (21)   13 (12)
   2 (vegetative state) 0 (0) 14 (23)   14 (13)
   3 (severe disability) 19 (38) 28 (46)   47 (42)
   4 (moderate disability) 31 (62) 6 (10)   37 (33)
   5 (good recovery) 0 (0) 0 (0)   0 (0)
  1. ICU = Intensive Care Unit, IQR = interquartile range